Thursday, June 11, 2020

Relations between Men and Women in The Waste Land - Literature Essay Samples

In his poem â€Å"The Waste Land,† T.S. Eliot presents multiple relationships between men and women, both historical and of his own creation. The interactions that he describes allow the reader to infer how Eliot views relationships, sexuality, and gender. He presents relationships as dysfunctional while only focusing on their negative aspects. Through description of various couples, Eliot presents gender in a stereotypical fashion which allows the reader to gain insight into how Eliot views the sexes, especially women. Throughout â€Å"the Waste Land,† Eliot alludes to many historical events, mythical traditions, and literary works. He references three famous relationships that serve as a background for the relationships that Eliot creates and describes in â€Å"The Waste Land.† The first allusion presented is to Wagner’s opera â€Å"Tristan und Isolde.† In this work, Isolde is unwillingly engaged to a King, a man she does not love. She instead fal ls in love with a knight, Tristan. The play ends tragically; both lovers die rather than give up their love (Synopsis of Tristan und Isolde) Eliot also alludes to the relations between a King and his sister-in-law as described in Ovid’s â€Å"Metamorphoses† (fn 1, p477) King Tereus, upon being overcome with lust for his wife’s sister Philomela, drags her to the woods where he rapes her and then cuts out her tongue to silence her. Later, after her escape, she is changed into a nightingale (â€Å"Philomene†). A third and final reference from the poem is to Cleopatra. A woman in â€Å"The Waste Land† is portrayed as sitting on a â€Å"Chair†¦like a burnished throne,† (l. 77) which is described in the footnote as an adaptation of Shakespeare’s play â€Å"Antony and Cleopatra.† In this play, Mark Antony believes that his lover, Cleopatra, is dead and he therefore impales himself on his sword. Cleopatra, awakening from a sleep, discovers that her lover is dead and commits suicide by means of a snake bite (â€Å"Mark Antony†). In these literary allusions, Eliot presents three relationships that are associated with despair and violence. In the â€Å"Metamorphoses† and â€Å"Tristan und Isolde,† women are forced to be with men they do not love nor desire. All of the relationships involve violence and all end in tragedy. Examining the three relationships together gives the impression that any fleeting pleasure that relationships or love can bring will be insignificant to the ultimate violence, pain, and despair that is involved. The examples give the reader context for interpreting the relationships invented by Eliot in â€Å"The Waste Land† which are described in three sections of the poem: in a conversation between an aristocratic woman and her lover (l. 111-138), in a bar scene in which a woman gossips about her married friend (l. 139- 172), and in a sexual encounter between a ty pist and a clerk (l. 215-256). In the first of these relationships, a woman speaks to a man assumed to be her lover. The woman is of high social class. She sits upon a â€Å"throne† (77) in her house which is furnished with luxurious things. The woman is frantic and seemingly irrational during a conversation with her lover. We first hear her exclaim, â€Å"My nerves are bad to-night. Yes, bad. Stay with me.† (111) This gives the reader an initial impression of an emotional and frightened character. She continues by demanding that her companion speak to her and tell her what he is thinking. She repeats herself frantically in her attempt to get him to respond to her (l. 112-114). This suggests that the woman and the man have poor communication with each other. When the man finally speaks, he is calm and enigmatic. He says, â€Å"I think we are rats’ alley/ Where the dead men lost their bones.† (115) This contrast with the woman makes her seem out-of-control on account of her emotions, her â€Å"nerves.† She continues by asking, â€Å"What is that noise,† to which he answers â€Å"The wind under the door† (117). Again, the woman is compelled to speak because of her emotions, in this case fear. The man is calm and rational, recognizing the sound as merely wind. She continues to be frightened by the sounds she hears and continues to be reassured by the man, â€Å"nothing again nothing† (120). Throughout the dialogue between this aristocratic woman and her lover, she is compelled to speak and act because of her flighty emotions. She recognizes herself as the weaker of the two as she early on begs the man to stay the night. This section can be interpreted as Eliot’s perception and commentary on the differences between genders. The dialogue is revealing about Eliot’s perception of women, as the man is portrayed as calm and rational in comparison to the overemotional, irrational, and weak woman. The second relationship described in â€Å"The Waste Land† is the marriage between a man and woman, Albert and Lil. We are hearing about this marriage as the narrator, an unidentified woman in a bar, describes the advice she gave to her friend, the wife Lil. Albert is returning from war and while he was gone, Lil’s appearance became more ragged and unattractive. The narrator therefore rebukes Lil, saying, â€Å"You ought to be ashamed, I said, to look so antique.† (156) The narrator points out that Albert has â€Å"been in the army four years, he wants a good time† (148). The narrator is expressing the view that it is Lil’s duty as a wife to be sexually available to her husband. If she is not willing to satisfy his sexual needs, or if she has not kept herself attractive enough to be desired by her husband, he is allowed to seek sexual satisfaction from other women. The narrator reminds Lil of this by pointing out â€Å"if you don’t give it hi m, there’s others will† (149). Lil attempts to defend herself by explaining that her deteriorating appearance was the result of pills she took to induce the abortion of what would have been her sixth child, â€Å"It’s them pills I took, to bring it off, she said† (159). The narrator implies that during the labor of the birth of Lil’s last child, she â€Å"nearly died† (160). It therefore seems understandable that Lil is not enthusiastic about the prospects of another birth. This does not sway the opinion of the narrator who asks, â€Å"What you get married for if you don’t want children?† (164) The narrator therefore presents the view that even if a woman’s life is in danger, this does not excuse her from her womanly duties of pleasing her husband sexually and consequently bearing his children. The opinion of the narrator, which may or may not be Eliot’s, is a commonly held societal view, especially in Eliotâ€⠄¢s time. Married women are expected to serve the sexual needs of their husbands. They are expected to bear children, regardless of their personal desire for children or the threat that giving birth posed to a women’s health in that time period. Reducing a woman to a means for men’s sexual gratification and as an incubator for his children is extreme objectification. Philomela was equally objectified by her rapist, who viewed her as a means to gain pleasure and not as a human being. The marriage between Lil and Albert, which appears to be loveless, is also reminiscent of the forced union of Isolde and the King, in which Isolde was being forced into a marriage with a man she did not love. In the final relationship discussed in â€Å"The Waste Land,† a blind prophet named Tiresias describes a sexual encounter between a female typist and a male clerk. A woman sits alone in her house, preparing a meal. A man enters. Although he notices that the woman is â€Å"bored and tired,† he still attempts to engage her in sexual activity (236). The encounter begins somewhat lovingly, with the clerk engaging â€Å"her in caresses.† (237) These advances are described as â€Å"unreproved, if undesired† (238). Seeing that the woman is not going to object, the man, â€Å"assaults at once† (239). In this situation, the man is only thinking of the pleasure he will receive from the woman and has virtually no other concern for her once he has gained her consent. It does not bother him that she does not desire him or the sexual act. In fact, he â€Å"makes a welcomes of indifference,† which suggests that he would rather her be disinterested (242). The man sees the woman solely as a sexual object, put in place for his sexual gratification. He has no desire to have an emotional connection with this woman, nor does he care whether she is receiving pleasure in return for his. When he leaves, he â€Å"bestows one final patronizing ki ss,† which is a condescending and demeaning gesture to impose on someone that was just used by you as an object (246). The woman is portrayed as unconcerned with this series of events. She thinks to herself, â€Å"Well now that’s done: and I’m glad it’s over.† (252) The narrator of this scene is the blind prophet from Greek mythology, Tiresias. He had lived for some time as both a male and a female. Because of his knowledge of both sexes, Eliot describes Tiresias as, â€Å"the most important personage in the poem, uniting all the rest† and says that â€Å"†¦the two sexes meet in Tiresias. What Tiresias sees, in fact, is the substance of the poem.† (fn 7 p481) Tiresias’ account of the sexual act between the typist and the clerk is central to understanding the gender relations that Eliot is presenting. Tiresias comments that he â€Å"perceived the scene, and foretold the rest / I too awaited the expected guest.† (229) This suggests that this scene between two â€Å"lovers† is one that Tiresias has seen, and most likely experienced, before, â€Å"And I Tiresias have foresuffered all/ Enacted on this same divan or bed.† (244) If the scene is a predictable one, it must be fairly common. Therefore, Eliot could be presenting the scene with the typist and the clerk as an archetype for relationships between men and women.This scene portrays distinct gender roles that are thought of as socially acceptable. The man, like the husband Albert in the previous example, is supposed to take whatever he wants, sexually, from the woman he is dominating and the woman is supposed to let these things happen to her without complaint. Parallels can be seen between this type of domination of man over woman and in domination in the form of the rape of Philomela. She too was not allowed to complain or talk about her encounter. Her rapist ensured this by cutting out her tongue, therefore disabling her from sp eaking of what he did to her. In all three of these cases, the woman is objectified with the result of her being viewed as only a sexual object. The violence in the cases of all three of the historical relationships is also mirrored in the typist scene; the man â€Å"assaults at once† even though the woman is not objecting or fighting him. This sudden, violent image is not as dramatic as the violence seen in the historical relationships, yet it is telling that it is included at all. Eliot’s description of the aristocratic woman might offer insight into how or why domination of women occurs. The woman here, whom Eliot presents stereotypically, is weak and is dictated by her emotions. She is obviously inferior to her calm, intelligent companion.The purpose of the women in both the historical relationships and those found in the poem is foremost to satisfy men and to be sexually available to them. This dehumanizes the women in these relationships to an extreme degree. The three relationships in â€Å"the Waste Land† are presented as loveless, sometimes violent, and dysfunctional. The ultimate impression is that relationships between men and women are bound to fail, and lead to despair or violence. BibliographyMark Antony. Oracle ThinkQuest Library. Web. 03 Nov. 2009. .PHILOMENE. Columbia University in the City of New York. Web. 03 Nov. 2009. .SparkNotes: Eliot’s Poetry: The Waste Land Section V: â€Å"What the Thunder Said†. SparkNotes: Todays Most Popular Study Guides. Web. 03 Nov. 2009. .(This reference was used during my initial readings of the poem to help to sort through the content of the poem, to make sense of it. I do not think I used anything specific from my readings on this site, but as it helped me to initially grasp the ideas in the poem, I included it in the bibliography.)Synopsis of Tristan und Isolde. Welcome to the Metropolitan Opera Family of websites – The Metropolitan Opera. Web. 03 Nov. 2009..

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Indoor plants - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 23 Words: 6839 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Statistics Essay Did you like this example? Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? 1.0 Introduction I did further research and found out that indoor air pollution phenomenon has urged the NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) scientists to study the functions of plants to provide clean indoor air. NASA has become the pioneer towards this research and recently has been widened by many other associations like the Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. endorsed by the Plants for Clean Air Council in Mitchellville, Maryland[1]. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Indoor plants" essay for you Create order Research done by NASA has found out that there are certain plants that have the function to purify the air in a building[2]. They detoxify the existing toxins and pollutants which originate from the things used in daily activities nowadays; fabrics, detergents and also furniture. These pollutants can be classified into three common indoor pollutants according to the list of indoor contaminant that are currently present. There are benzene, formaldehyde and trichloroethylene. (TCE)[3] Plants use the concept of transpiration to work onto this problem[4]. As the vaporized chemical enters the stomatal opening on the leaves of the indoor plants, they are either broken down directly or be sent downwards; down to the root system of the plants.[5] The presence of colonies of microbes at the root system breaks down various kinds of unhealthy compounds; in this case the indoor pollutants, and absorbs them as their source of food[6]. As for the mechanism of transpiration to remove the pollutant, water vapour that is liberated by the leaves of the plants will mix with the air in the atmosphere. Convection of air leads to the movement of the atmospheric air that is contaminated with the vaporized chemical downwards to the base of the plants. I chose 6 types of plants to be experimented by one fixed type of pollutant; formaldehyde. It is normally used in the production of grocery bags, facial tissues, waxed paper, waxed paper[7] and produced by tobacco products, gas cookers and open fireplaces.[8] In the experiment, this chemical is predicted to be absorbed by each plant. Plant that absorbs the chemical the most would be the efficient plant to be included in places mentioned before. 2.0 Aim To study the effect of plants transpiration towards the acidity and mass of formaldehyde in a transparent chamber. 3.0 Planning and method development Firstly, a chamber must be set up to place plants chosen. A pot of selected plant is placed into each chamber. 6 types of plants were chosen, therefore 6 chambers must be created. To make sure that air, sunlight and water could be continuously supplied, I decided that the chamber must be transparent, and there are holes to let air enters. The material that I chose is transparent plastic so that holes can be poked, the wall of the chambers can be flipped to water the plants everyday and plants get sufficient sunlight. I selected formaldehyde as the pollutant to the plants. In each of the chamber, I included formalin of the same amount in a beaker and let it evaporate in the chamber. As formalin CH2O, is a reducing agent[9], therefore it has the ability to release its hydrogen.[10] The more hydrogen ions present in it, the greater the strength of the acid. When evaporation of formalin happens continuously, there will be less in quantity of hydrogen atoms in the aqueous solution. Thus, the acidity of formaldehyde could decrease through evaporation; pH of the formalin increases. So, the pH of the formalin is ought to be checked for every interval of two days. Because concept of evaporation is used, it is for sure the volume of the formalin will reduce. The most effective method to measure this is by getting the mass decrease. I took the reading of the mass of formalin for every interval of two days. I decided to take note on the external condition of all the plants so that analysis on that can be don e to find its relativity with formalin. 4.0 Hypothesis My prediction is that indoor plants have the ability to get rid of formaldehyde, one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home nowadays by absorbing the chemicals through their microscopic openings perforated on their leaves; the stomata[11]. As the chemical evaporates, the molecules of the chemical are absorbed by the plants by gaining entrance through the stomata. These plants transport the absorbed chemical to their root system along the xylem of the plants to be broken down by the microbes present at the roots.[12] As formalin acts as a reducing agent, release of hydrogen could occur. Through evaporation of formalin, there will be less hydrogen atoms could remain in the aqueous solution. Thus, it is possible for the decrease in mass and increase in the pH of the formalin to occur when indoor plants are available. 5.0 Methodology 5.1 Variables a) Independent: * Types of plants chosen to be experimented There are variety types of plants chosen in order to know whether the hypothesis could be accepted. They are Boston fern (Nephrolepis exaltata Bostoniensis), Janet Craig(Dracaena deremensis), Florists mum(Chrysanthemum morifolium), Kimberly queen fern (Nephrolepis obliterata), Snake plant or mother-in-laws tongue (Sansevieria trifasciata Laurentii), Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) altogether. Himalayan Balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) acts as the control of the experiment to show its less in efficiency to absorb the toxin. Some plants have no ability to absorb the chosen toxin as good as in some indoor plants. b) Dependent: * The rate of absorption of formaldehyde The rate of absorption of formaldehyde is taken as the decrease in mass of formalin over time. This is documented for every interval of two days. Other than that, the acidity of formaldehyde in each chamber is also noted. This is done by using pH paper and pH meter to indicate the change in pH. The pH of the formalin in the chamber is recorded to see the pattern of change in acidity. c) Fixed: * The type of toxin chosen; formaldehyde Liquid formalin is selected to be one of the fixed variables in this experiment so that the analysis of the change in acidity can be done easily. More than one type of pollutant will promote confusion while conducting the experiment as the characteristic of one pollutant differ from one to another. Formalin is the aqueous state of the chemical formaldehyde and the concentration of the liquid formalin is 100%. I made the volume and the concentration of liquid formalin the same in every small beaker included in every transparent chamber. It is important to do so because the pH of the chemical and its mass are to be checked every 2 days throughout the duration of the experiment. The initial pH of the chemical is 3.510 while the initial volume of the chemical is 10 0.5 ml making its mass to be 10.19 0.01 g * The estimated size of the plants chosen The chosen plants are of the same size. There is no specific measurement for the plants sizes so therefore, the size is depending on the experimenters justification by fixing the number of leaves present in every plant chosen. This is due to the mechanism of the absorption of the chemical formalin happens through the microscopic opening present on the leaves; the stomata. It is therefore can be predicted that more tiny opening present on the leaves, the more effective would the rate of absorption be. I decided that the total number of leaves is approximately 15-20 leaves depending on the how broad the surface of the leaves is. * The size of the pyramidal transparent chamber The size of the pyramidal transparent chamber is to be made constant by using the same size and number of transparent plastic bags. The size of the plastic bags is 23cm x 38cm and they are cut into same shapes to fit it with the skeleton of the chamber. The base of the chamber is triangular in shape and constant with the area of (50cm x 50cm). 5.2 Materials MATERIALS QUANTITY JUSTIFICATION Formalin 120ml Formalin acts as the toxin in the experiment. Tap Water 5 litres This is used to water the plants everyday for 2 weeks duration. 5.3 Apparatus APPARATUS QUANTITY JUSTIFICATION Boston fern (N. exaltata) 1 pot These are the plants chosen to determine their effectiveness to absorb the formalin. Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 1 pot Florists mum (C. morifolium) 1 pot Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) 1 pot Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 1 pot Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 1 pot pH paper 1 box To check the acidity of formalin every 2 days. pH meter 1 To determine the pH of the formalin every 2 days. Disposable plastic cups 24 To be the base of the pyramidal transparent chamber. Plastic and bamboo chopsticks 54 To be the poles of the pyramidal transparent chamber. Electronic balance 1 To measure the decrease in mass of the liquid formalin for every 2 days. 50ml beaker 6 To place the liquid formalin in each chamber. 50ml measuring cylinder 1 To measure the amount of formalin in each 50ml beaker. Transparent plastics for packaging (23cm x 38cm) 1 pack To become the cover of the chamber. 5.4 Methodology to prepare a chamber for the plant A chamber has to be invented to place the chosen plants, considering the needs of those plants to get sufficient sunlight, air and water. I chose transparent plastics and attach them together to create a pyramidal transparent chamber. Holes were also poked to allow air move into the chamber. I included nine chopsticks to be the poles of chamber. A pole comprised of 3 combined chopsticks. To increase its stability, I poked a hole onto the bases of three disposable plastic cups and inserted the chopsticks into the holes. 5.5 Methodology to determine the change in acidity of formaldehyde After the chamber was set up, I prepared the solution of the toxin chosen; formalin.in a 50ml beaker. 10 0.5 ml of the chemical in each beaker was measured using 50ml measuring cylinder. 6 transparent chambers were set up to place 6 types of plants which were the Boston fern (N. exaltata), Janet Craig (D. deremensis), Florists mum (C. morifolium), Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata), Snake plant (S. trifasciata), and Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera). All the 6 chambers contained different pots of plants and 10ml of formalin in a 50ml beaker. At intervals of 2 days, the mass of the formalin was recorded. The procedure to get the mass of formalin in each chamber was as follows; * Take the reading of the mass of 50ml beaker before filling in the formalin by using electronic balance. Repeat the steps 3 times in order to get the average reading. * Weigh the 50ml beaker containing formalin by using electronic balance. Repeat the procedure 3 times in order to get the average reading. The reading of the mass of the formalin + 50ml beaker at intervals of 2 days was recorded. The mass of the formalin was determined by subtracting the average value of the mass of formalin + 50ml beaker with the average mass of the 50ml beaker. The pH was again checked by using pH paper and also pH meter for 2 weeks. The change in colour of the pH paper and the reading of the pH meter were noted and documented. Each of the plants in the chamber was watered once a day using tap water. The amount of tap water must was 20ml per watering and watering time was at 10.30 a.m and 4.00 p.m. every day. Condition for each of the plants was observed for interval time of 2 days. All of results were recorded in a table. 5.5.1 Precaution 1. Beware while handling formalin because it is a dangerous chemical. Since a high concentration of formaldehyde will be used in the experiment, [13]it may cause burning sensation to the eyes, nose and lungs. Thus it could result in allergic reaction because of formalin. 2. Be cautious when building the pyramidal transparent chamber especially when dealing with the bamboo sticks. Avoid any sharp splinter of the bamboo stick from piercing into the skin. 6.0 Data collection TABLE 1: THE pH of FORMALIN IN EACH TRANSPARENT CHAMBER WITH DIFFERENT PLANTS IN 14 DAYS Transparent chamber containing plants Value of Ph of formalin in each transparent chamber according to number of days 2 days 4 days 6 days 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days Boston fern (N. exaltata Bostoniensis) 3.510 3.550 3.570 4.020 4.130 4.260 4.310 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 3.510 3.570 3.580 4.020 4.070 4.210 4.430 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 3.510 3.570 3.590 4.120 4.200 4.320 4.620 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 3.510 3.510 3.520 4.010 4.030 4.050 4.110 Snake plant (S. trifasciata Laurentii) 3.510 3.370 3.360 4.030 4.030 4.030 4.030 Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 3.510 3.370 3.370 3.350 3.350 3.350 3.350 Note: The pH of formalin in each beaker was checked at the same interval to ensure that none of the formalin being absorbed more by their respective plants. The time that they were checked was at a range of 4.00 p.m. until 4.45 p.m. 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? TABLE 2: MASS OF FORMALIN + 50ml BEAKER IN EACH CHAMBER CONTAINING DIFFERENT PLANTS IN 14 DAYS Transparent chamber containing plants Mass of formalin + 50ml beaker in each transparent chamber 0.01g 2 days 4 days 6 days 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Boston fern (N. exaltata) 46.950 46.960 46.960 46.530 46.540 46.550 46.230 46.220 46.220 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 46.910 46.910 46.910 46.520 46.520 46.510 46.310 46.310 46.310 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 46.940 46.940 46.950 46.610 46.600 46.610 46.350 46.340 46.350 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) 46.970 46.970 46.970 46.620 46.620 46.640 46.430 46.410 46.410 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 46.920 46.910 46.910 46.620 46.630 46.610 46.420 46.410 46.430 Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) 46.940 46.940 46.930 46.780 46.790 46.790 46.720 46.710 46.720 Note: The mass of the formalin was measured at intervals of 2 days and it was at a range of time from 4.00 p.m. until 4.45 p.m. 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? Transparent chamber containing plants Mass of formalin + 50ml beaker in each transparent chamber 0.01g 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd 1st 2nd 3rd Boston fern (N. exaltata) 46.010 46.030 46.040 45.480 45.480 45.470 45.210 45.220 45.220 44.950 44.960 44.980 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 45.520 45.530 45.530 45.030 45.030 45.020 44.960 44.960 44.920 44.580 44.590 44.580 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 45.550 45.550 45.560 45.220 45.210 45.220 44.940 44.940 44.950 44.130 44.130 44.140 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) 45.500 45.510 45.510 45.320 45.350 45.350 44.980 44.980 44.990 44.220 44.230 44.230 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 45.890 45.900 45.890 45.530 45.530 45.530 45.140 45.140 45.120 44.970 44.960 44.970 Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) 46.680 46.680 46.680 46.340 46.340 46.320 46.290 46.290 47.300 46.250 46.240 46.250 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? Transparent chamber containing plants Change in colour of pH paper 2 days 4 days 6 days 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days Boston fern (N. exaltata) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Yellow leaves Brown Leaves Florists mum (C.morifolium) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Wilted flowers Wilted flowers Yellow leaves Yellow leaves K. queen fern (N. obliterata) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves Green leaves H. Balsam (I. glandulifera) Green leaves Green leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Yellow leaves Brown leaves Brown leaves TABLE 3: DAILY CONDITION OF PLANTS IN THE TRANSPARENT CHAMBERS IN 14 DAYS Note: Only Florists mum (C.morifolium) in this experiment has flowers. When the edges of the leaves becoming brown or yellow, it is indicated as having brown leaves or yellow leaves. The font in italic form indicates the adverse change onto the plants. 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? TABLE 4: CHANGE IN COLOUR OF pH PAPER WHEN pH OF FORMALIN FOR A DURATION OF TWO WEEKS Transparent chamber containing plants Change in colour of pH paper 2 days 4 days 6 days 8 days 10 days 12 days 14 days Boston fern (N. exaltata ) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Florists mum (C. morifolium) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange K. queen fern (N. obliterata) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange H. Balsam (I. glandulifera) Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Light orange Note: The original colour of the pH paper is light yellow in colour 10 Are indoor plants adapted to get rid formaldehyde, Sipin, Elly Lorreta one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home 002348-019 nowadays? 7.0 Data processing 7.1 pH difference of formalin I discover that there are some changes in pH of the formalin in the transparent chamber. The following table shows the total difference in the final and the initial pH of the formalin in each transparent chamber. TABLE 5: DIFFERENCE IN pH OF FORMALIN IN EACH TRANSPARENT CHAMBER Transparent chamber containing plants Final pH Initial pH Difference in pH Boston fern (N. exaltata) 4.310 3.510 0.800 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 4.430 3.510 0.920 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 4.620 3.510 1.110 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 4.110 3.510 0.600 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 4.030 3.510 0.520 Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 3.350 3.510 0.160 Note: The method to calculate the pH of formalin in chamber containing Himalayan Balsam is inverted, since the pH value decreased so that negative value can be ignored. 7.2 Data for mean mass of formalin The following table shows the average mass of formalin + 50ml beaker for 14 days TABLE 6: AVERAGE MASS OF FORMALIN + 50ml BEAKER IN EACH CHAMBER CONTAINING DIFFERENT PLANTS IN 14 DAYS Transparent chamber containing plants Average mass of formalin+50ml beaker in each chamber 0.01g Day 2 Day 4 Day 6 Day 8 Day 10 Day 12 Day 14 Boston fern (N. exaltata) 46.960 46.540 46.220 46.030 45.480 45.220 44.960 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 46.910 46.520 46.310 45.530 45.030 44.950 44.580 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 46.940 46.610 46.350 45.550 45.220 44.540 44.130 K. queen fern (N. obliterate) 46.970 46.630 46.420 45.510 45.340 44.980 44.240 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 46.910 46.620 46.420 45.890 45.330 45.130 44.970 H. Balsam (I. glandulifera 46.940 46.790 46.720 46.680 46.330 46.290 44.250 Note: The average masses were obtained by totaling up the three mass values in three trials, and divide it into three. 7.3 Graph for the decreasing mass of formalin In order to get a graph of decrease in mass of formalin from day 0 to day 14, the real mass of formalin is required. Therefore, the table of mass of formalin for a duration of 14 days is made as follows. The formulation to calculate the mass of formalin in each beaker would be; Mass of formalin= [(Average mass of formalin+50ml beaker)- Average mass of 50ml beaker] TABLE 7: MASS OF FORMALIN IN EVERY 50ml BEAKER CONTAINED IN TRANSPARENT CHAMBER WITH DIFFERENT TYPES OF PLANTS Transparent chamber containing plants Mass of formalin 0.01g [(Average mass of formalin+50ml beaker) Average mass of 50ml beaker] Day 2 Day 4 Day 6 Day 8 Day 10 Day 12 Day 14 Boston fern (N. exaltata) 10.170 9.750 9.430 9.240 8.690 8.430 8.170 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 10.120 9.730 9.520 8.740 8.240 8.160 7.790 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 10.150 9.820 9.560 8.760 8.430 8.150 7.340 K. queen fern (N. obliterate) 10.180 9.840 9.630 8.760 8.430 8.150 7.450 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 10.120 9.830 9.630 9.100 8.540 8.340 8.180 H. Balsam (I. glandulifera 10.150 10.000 9.930 9.890 9.540 9.500 9.460 Note: The average mass of one 50ml beaker is 36.79 0.1g. This value was used to calculate the mass above. The bar graph of decrease in mass of the formalin against number of days for each beaker containing formalin in every transparent chamber is as follows; graph 1: decrease in mass of the formalin against number of days for each beaker containing formalin in every transparent chamber Note: The graph shows quite obvious inclination of mass of formalin in all chambers except for the H. Balsam (I. glandulifera) 7.4 Mass and percentage of formalin absorbed The initial average mass of the 10ml formalin in the 50ml beaker is 46.980 0.01g and the average mass of the 50ml beaker alone is 36.790 0.01g making the mass of the 10.000 0.1 ml formalin poured in to be 10.190 0.01g. From the data, there is a decreasing pattern of the mass of the formalin in the 50ml beaker. The percentage of decrease in mass of the 10.000 0.1 ml formalin in 14 days of time in respective transparent chamber of plants can be determined. Before that, the mass of formalin absorbed in all the 6 transparent chambers must be d up. Calculation is as follows; TABLE 8: MASS OF FORMALIN ABSORBED BY PLANTS IN EACH CHAMBER Name of plants in each chamber Mass of formalin absorbed [Initial mass (10.190)- Mass on the14th day] 0.01g Boston fern (N. exaltata) 2.020 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 2.400 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 2.850 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 2.740 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 2.010 H. Balsam (I. glandulifera 0.730 Note: The mass of formalin absorbed by plants in each chamber is referring to the decrease in mass of formalin throughout the 12 days duration. It is possible to calculate the percentage of decrease in mass of formalin absorbed by using the formulation below. The table below shows the percentage in respective 50ml beaker of formalin in all 6 chambers; Percentage of decrease in = Mass of formalin absorbed x 100% mass of formalin Initial mass of formalin TABLE 9: PERCENTAGE DECREASE IN MASS OF FORMALIN IN THE 50ml BEAKER IN RESPECTIVE TRANSPARENT CHAMBER Transparent chamber containing plants Percentage of decrease in mass of formalin absorbed Percentage of decrease in mass of formalin (%) Boston fern (N. exaltata) 2.020/10.190 x 100 19.820 Janet Craig (D. deremensis) 2.400/10.190 x 100 23.550 Florists mum (C. morifolium) 2.850/10.190 x 100 27.970 Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 2.740/10.190 x 100 26.890 Snake plant (S. trifasciata) 2.010/10.190 x 100 19.730 Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 0.730/10.190 x 100 7.160 Note: The comparison of decrease in mass of formalin in beaker is based on the initial mass of formalin in the beaker. The greater the percentage of decrease in masses of formalin, the better the quality of air in the chamber, the better formalin absorber would the plant be. The following diagram shows the ascending order of the quality of plant as formalin absorber. Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Boston fern (N. exaltata) Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) Florists mum (C. morifolium) 7.5 Calculation for mean, standard deviation and T-test TABLE 10 : TABLE OF MEAN AND STANDARD DEVIATION FOR EVERY PLANTS CHOSEN Mass 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Florists mum (C. morifolium) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) 1st trial 2.000 2.330 2.810 2.000 1.950 0.690 2nd trial 2.000 2.320 2.810 2.740 1.950 0.700 3rd trial 1.980 2.330 2.810 2.740 1.940 0.680 Mean 1.993 2.327 2.810 2.493 1.947 0.690 Std. Dev 0.009 0.005 0.000 0.349 0.005 0.008 Note: The mean was determined by getting the difference of mass of formalin between 14th day with the 0 day; initial mass. The formulation to calculate t-test is as follows; t-value =_____difference in mean___ difference of standard error TABLE 11: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MASS DECREASE MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND JANET CRAIG (D. deremensis) Mass 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Difference between Boston fern and Janet Craig 1 trial 2.000 2.330 0.330 2 trial 2.000 2.320 0.320 3 trial 1.980 2.330 0.340 Mean 1.993 2.327 0.330 Std. Dev 0.009 0.005 0.008 Std. Error 1.151 1.343 0.191 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.728 Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Janet Craig (D. deremensis) | t | = 1.728 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant TABLE 12: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MASS DECREASE MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND FLORISTS MUM (C. morifolium) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Florists mum (C. morifolium) Mass 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Florists mum (C. morifolium) Difference between Boston fern and Florists mum 1 trial 2.000 2.810 0.810 2 trial 2.000 2.810 0.810 3 trial 1.980 2.810 0.810 Mean 1.993 2.810 0.810 Std. Dev 0.009 0.000 0.000 Std. Error 1.151 1.622 0.468 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.731 | t | = 1.731 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 13: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND KIMBERLY QUEEN FERN (N. obliterata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Mass 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Difference between Boston fern and Kimberly queen fern 1 trial 2.000 2.000 0.810 2 trial 2.000 2.740 0.810 3 trial 1.980 2.740 0.810 Mean 1.993 2.493 0.810 Std. Dev 0.009 0.349 0.000 Std. Error 1.151 1.439 0.468 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.730 | t | = 1.730 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 14: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND SNAKE PLANT (S. trifasciata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Mass 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Difference between Boston fern and Snake plant 1 trial 2.000 1.950 0.050 2 trial 2.000 1.950 0.050 3 trial 1.980 1.940 0.040 Mean 1.993 1.950 0.050 Std. Dev 0.009 0.005 0.005 Std. Error 1.151 1.126 0.029 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.724 | t | = 1.724 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 15: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN BOSTON FERN (N. exaltata) AND HIMALAYAN BALSAM (I. glandulifera) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Boston fern (N. exaltata) and Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Mass 0.01g Plants Boston fern (N. exaltata) Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Difference between Boston fern and Himalayan Balsam 1 trial 2.000 0.690 1.310 2 trial 2.000 0.700 1.300 3 trial 1.980 0.680 1.300 Mean 1.993 0.690 1.303 Std. Dev 0.009 0.008 0.005 Std. Error 1.151 0.398 0.752 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.733 | t | = 1.733 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 16: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN JANET CRAIG (D. deremensis) AND FLORISTS MUM (C. morifolium) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Janet Craig (D. deremensis) and Florists mum (C. morifolium) Mass 0.01g Plants Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Florists mum (C. morifolium) Difference between Janet Craig and Florists mum 1 trial 2.330 2.810 0.480 2 trial 2.320 2.810 0.490 3 trial 2.330 2.810 0.480 Mean 2.327 2.810 0.483 Std. Dev 0.005 0.000 0.005 Std. Error 1.343 1.622 0.279 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.732 | t | = 1.732 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 17: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN JANET CRAIG (D. deremensis) AND KIMBERLY QUEEN FERN (N. obilterata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Janet Craig (D. deremensis) and Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Mass 0.01g Plants Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Difference between Janet Craig and Kimberly queen fern 1 trial 2.330 2.000 0.330 2 trial 2.320 2.740 0.420 3 trial 2.330 2.740 0.410 Mean 2.327 2.493 0.387 Std. Dev 0.005 0.349 0.040 Std. Error 1.343 1.440 0.223 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.734 | t | = 1.734 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 18: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN JANET CRAIG (D. deremensis) AND SNAKE PLANT (S. trifasciata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Janet Craig (D. deremensis) and Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Mass 0.01g Plants Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Difference between Janet Craig and Snake plant 1 trial 2.330 1.950 0.380 2 trial 2.320 1.950 0.370 3 trial 2.330 1.940 0.390 Mean 2.327 1.950 0.380 Std. Dev 0.005 0.005 0.008 Std. Error 1.343 1.126 0.219 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.735 | t | = 1.735 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 19: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN JANET CRAIG (D. deremensis) AND HIMALAYAN BALSAM (I. glandulifera) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Janet Craig (D. deremensis) and Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Mass 0.01g Plants Janet Craig (D. deremensis) Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Difference between Janet Craig and Himalayan Balsam 1 trial 2.330 0.690 1.640 2 trial 2.320 0.700 1.620 3 trial 2.330 0.680 1.650 Mean 2.327 0.690 1.640 Std. Dev 0.005 0.008 0.013 Std. Error 1.343 0.398 0.947 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.732 | t | = 1.732 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 20: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN FLORISTS MUM (C. morifolium) AND KIMBERLY QUEEN FERN (N. obliterata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Florists mum (C. morifolium) and Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Mass 0.01g Plants Florists mum (C. morifolium) Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Difference between Florists mum and Kimberly queen fern 1 trial 2.810 2.000 0.810 2 trial 2.810 2.740 0.070 3 trial 2.810 2.740 0.070 Mean 2.810 2.493 0.327 Std. Dev 0.000 0.349 0.349 Std. Error 1.622 1.439 0.189 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.730 | t | = 1.730 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 21: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN FLORISTS MUM (C. morifolium) AND SNAKE PLANT (S. trifasciata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Florists mum (C. morifolium) and Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Mass 0.01g Plants Florists mum (C. morifolium) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Difference between Florists mum and Snake plant 1 trial 2.810 1.950 0.860 2 trial 2.810 1.950 0.860 3 trial 2.810 1.940 0.870 Mean 2.810 1.950 0.860 Std. Dev 0.000 0.005 0.005 Std. Error 1.622 1.126 0.497 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.730 | t | = 1.730 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 22: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN FLORISTS MUM (C. morifolium) AND HIMALAYAN BALSAM (I. glandulifera) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Florists mum (C. morifolium) and Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) Mass 0.01g Plants Florists mum (C. morifolium) Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Difference between Florists mum and Himalayan Balsam 1 trial 2.810 0.690 2.120 2 trial 2.810 0.700 2.110 3 trial 2.810 0.680 2.130 Mean 2.810 0.690 2.120 Std. Dev 0.000 0.008 0.008 Std. Error 1.622 0.398 1.223 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.733 | t | = 1.733 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 23: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN KIMBERLY QUEEN FERN (N. obliterata) AND SNAKE PLANT (S. trifasciata) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) and Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Mass 0.01g Plants Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Difference between Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate) 1 trial 2.000 1.950 0.050 2 trial 2.740 1.950 0.790 3 trial 2.740 1.940 0.800 Mean 2.493 1.950 0.547 Std. Dev 0.349 0.005 0.351 Std. Error 1.439 1.126 0.316 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.731 | t | = 1.731 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 24: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN KIMBERLY QUEEN FERN (N. obliterata) AND HIMALAYAN BALSAM (I. glandulifera) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) and Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Mass 0.01g Plants Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterata) Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Difference between Kimberly queen fern and Himalayan Balsam 1 trial 2.000 0.690 1.310 2 trial 2.740 0.700 2.040 3 trial 2.740 0.680 2.060 Mean 2.493 0.690 1.803 Std. Dev 0.349 0.008 0.349 Std. Error 1.439 0.398 1.041 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.732 | t | = 1.732 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. TABLE 25: TABLE OF T-VALUE FOR THE COMPARISON OF MEAN BETWEEN SNAKE PLANT (S. trifasciata) AND HIMALAYAN BALSAM (I. glandulifera) Null Hypothesis: There is no significance difference for decrease in mass between Snake plant (S. trifasciata) and Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Mass 0.01g Plants Snake plant (S. trifasciata) Himalayan Balsam(I. glandulifera) Difference between Snake plant and Himalayan Balsam 1 trial 1.950 0.690 1.260 2 trial 1.950 0.700 1.250 3 trial 1.940 0.680 2.620 Mean 1.950 0.690 1.710 Std. Dev 0.005 0.008 0.643 Std. Error 1.126 0.398 0.987 Degree of freedom 2.000 Critical value at 5% level 4.300 t-value 1.733 | t | = 1.732 4.300 Thus, null hypothesis is rejected. The mean difference is not significant. 7.6 Analysis on mass of formalin From my prediction, only the indoor plants could eliminate indoor pollutants; as in this case the chemical formalin. While the outdoor plants are unable to do so. But I found out that decrease in mass of formalin in the entire 50ml beakers that contained the chemical is influenced by the ineffectiveness of the transparent chamber, which therefore rejects the theory that indoor plants transpiration alone could remove the pollutant. The ineffectiveness is referring to the external air movement that causes evaporation of formalin. According to the data processed, the percentage of formalin absorbed by each of the plants shows a very close difference to one another and it is irrelevant to assume that all the formalin that was lost was via transpiration. Further research was made to explain these big differences. I concluded that the difference in rate of transpiration in plants affect the rate at which volume of formalin is decreased. Thus, the greater the transpiration rates of a plant, the better quality of air it produces. My assumption on this is because of the availability amount of water vapor that could be emitted out by the leaves of the plants is great when the rate of transpiration of a plant is high. This enables more mixing of the water vapor in the atmosphere with the vaporized chemical. This means, there would be more food that is available to be broken down by the microbes at the root system of a plant. Of all the six plants chosen to be experimented, only 4 of them have high transpiration rates. They are Janet Craig (D. deremensis), Boston fern (N. exaltata), Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate), and Florists mum (C. morifolium)[14]. The other two plants which are Snake plant (S. trifasciata) and Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera) have a much lower rate of transpiration when compared with the 4 plants. 7.7 Analysis on pH of formalin Formalin is acidic in nature and there should not be any change in pH of the formalin in the beaker because generally, a buffer; carboxylic acid is present in formalin.[15] With the buffer, the solution would be able to resist any change in pH even though there is any external factor that could alter the pH of the solution. Hence, the pH should remain constant. But since there is a change in the value of pH of the formalin contained in the 50ml beaker in all of the 6 transparent chambers, I then make an early assumption that the carboxylic acid that is contained in the solution does not buffer.[16] That was why the pH value of the formalin in the beaker in all of the 6 transparent chambers increased throughout the 14 days duration of experiment. There must be an external factor present in the chamber that affected the acidity of the formalin. Throughout my findings, I found an explanation for this. Formalin acts as a reducing agent.[17] Thus it can undergo oxidation which could relea se its hydrogen.[18] As formalin evaporates, it is being oxidized to become CHO+. The hydrogen would then combine with the water vapour emitted by the plants via transpiration; from H2O, becoming H3O+. These ions which are available in the air would be fixed by the microbes at the roots of the plants, becoming the source of food for the plants. 7.8 Analysis on the external condition of plants The external condition of the plants becoming worse as the experiment was carried out. Alteration of the colour of the edge of the leaves form green to yellow[19] and brown[20] and wilting of flowers[21] was due to the insufficient of water. Thus, it can be said that when the plant is lack of water, it would not be efficient in removing pollutants. The plants got dried up; changing colour from green to brown thus there was no stomata opening because the guard cells die. Eventually, the transfer of chemical downwards to the roots of the plants will not happen. It can be assumed that for plants that got dried up towards the end of experiment that the colour of the leaves started to become brown, the rate at which the mass of formalin decreases was not mainly supported by the process of vaporized chemical being absorbed through the stomata. Perhaps the colonies of bacteria are still present at the roots of the plants with this condition but the rate of decrease of formalin mass is reduc ed, not as rapid as the initial rate. 8.0 Conclusion From the data obtained, I conclude that one of the observable changes in the quantity of the formalin is the mass. This is influenced by the evaporation of the formalin. The percentage of formalin that could evaporate is minimized by having the transparent chamber to cover the plant and 10ml of formalin which means the evaporation of formalin was not greatly affected by wind movement. It is therefore possible for chosen indoor plants; Janet Craig (D. deremensis), Boston fern (N. exaltata), Kimberly queen fern (N. obliterate), Florists mum (C. morifolium), Snake plant (S. trifasciata) and Boston fern (N. exaltata) to remove the toxin, formaldehyde as there is quite large decrease in the mass of the formalin. Though Snake plant (S. trifasciata) does not have a high transpiration rate, it can still remove formalin quite large in quantity. I believe that this is affected by the factors such as number of holes poked onto the chamber, the external wind movement and some more mentioned in t he evaluation part. (Please refer to 9.0) As for Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera), an example of outdoor plant, it is probably able to remove indoor pollutant but just in small percentage as seen in the ranking done in the data processing, this plant provides the lowest quality of air in the chamber due to contamination by the pollutant formalin. It could just remove formalin for about 7.160% in 14 days duration. Besides, the only plant that experienced a rapid external change was Himalayan Balsam (I. glandulifera). The edges of the leaves become brown on the twelfth day. One of the closest possibilities is due to the failure of the experimenter to follow the period of watering everyday that it received less water.[22] It might be due to a very small surface area of this plant that it was deficient for it to cope with the concentrated amount of formalin in the chamber added as before the experiment was conducted properly, I have tried including the same amount of formalin in a chamber containing less than 10 leaves and the same result occurred during the 8 day interval. Referring to the T-test in table 11 to table 25, all of the t- values were rejected because it lied in the critical region. The null hypothesis selected suggested that there was no significance between the differences of mass decrease between the plants. For the data to correspond with the predicted result, null hypothesis should be accepted. But because the pattern of formalin mass decreasing was too small from one interval to another, some of the values of standard deviation obtained are zero. That was why the mass differences between the plants are not significant when the t-values are all less than the critical value at 5% level which is 4.300. Thus, the null hypothesis stated that the mass differences are not significant to each other. This did not indicate the unreliability of the data but it showed that limitations and weaknesses were present in the experiment. There is an increase in pH of the formalin and the pattern somehow shows that the acidity of the chemical has already decreased. The assumption made through the research made for this experiment was indoor plants have the ability to get rid of formaldehyde, one of the noxious wastes commonly found at home nowadays. 9.0 Evaluation There were several weaknesses in the procedure throughout the experiment. I have come out with some suggestions on what to be improved on the aspect of methodology and the aspect of apparatus and materials used so that the experiment would give a reliable result when it is repeated in the future. Regarding the technique to measure the acidity of chemical formalin, I found out that it was unreliable. The pH meter sometimes failed to function well. Sometimes, pH meter detect acidic chemical to be having a pH value more than 7. It is highly suggested to use colourimeter because this instrument could give the exact concentration of hydrogen, H+ in the solution[23] enabling the calculation of its pH by using the following formulation; pH= -log10 (concentration of H+ ions) Next, there was failure to exactly follow the watering time for all plants in the chamber which eventually affected the external condition of plants. Thus, a time table has to be prepared in the future so that the watering time is made standard each day. Other than that, there was a pot of plant with one of its leaves had fallen into the beaker containing formalin. This should not happen because it could have left effect onto the acidity of the formalin. Place the beaker of formalin further from the pot of plant in the chamber so that neither leaves nor flowers would fall into the beaker. Lastly, number of holes poked onto some of the transparent chambers which were not fixed. In my opinion, this is one of the causes of inefficiency of the chamber. The more holes present, the more rapid would the evaporation of chemical be. Therefore, fix the number of holes poked. For a better result, use a square plastic aquarium being inverted with 2 square polystyrene as its base. This would allow less movement of air but able to provide oxygen for the plants in the camber. All in all, the hypothesis of the experiment is accepted. It is proven that the indoor plants are able to remove indoor pollutants while plants that are not indoor plants are able to remove indoor pollutants with a lower rate. Thus the public can now use this concept to provide good air quality at homes. [1] 14th August 2009, https://www.rosefloral.com/nsplnt.htm [2] 14th August 2009, https://www.rosefloral.com/nsplnt.htm [3] 14th August 2009, https://www.rosefloral.com/nsplnt.htm [4] 16th August 2009, https://www.ecomall.com/greenshopping/houseplants.htm [5] 28th August 2009, https://www.annieappleseedproject.org/plancleanina.html [6] 28th August 2009, https://www.annieappleseedproject.org/plancleanina.html [7] 14th August 2009, https://www.rosefloral.com/nsplnt.htm [8] 28th August 2009, https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs111.html [9] 19th December 2009, https://stainsfile.info/StainsFile/prepare/fix/agents/formalin.htm [10] 19th December 2009, https://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/redox/definitions.html [11] 25th July 2009, https://www.homemadesimple.com/en_US/nbrcontent.do?contentType=oparticleId=ar067 [12] 25th July 2009, https://www.homemadesimple.com/en_US/nbrcontent.do?contentType=oparticleId=ar067 [13] 28th August 2009, https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxprofiles/phs111.html [14] 28th August 2009,https://www.annieappleseedproject.org/plancleanina.html [15] 28th August 2009, https://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/105/1/157.pdf [16] 28th August 2009, https://www.jbc.org/cgi/reprint/105/1/157.pdf [17] 19th December 2009, https://stainsfile.info/StainsFile/prepare/fix/agents/formalin.htm [18] 19th December 2009, https://www.chemguide.co.uk/inorganic/redox/definitions.html [19] 24th October 2009, https://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art51546.asp [20] 24th October 2009, https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/problems/what-causes-brown-edges-on-leaves-of-plant.htm [21] 24th October 2009, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilting [22] 24th October 2009, https://www.gardeningknowhow.com/problems/what-causes-brown-edges-on-leaves-of-plant.htm [23] 26th August 2009, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colorimeter

Sunday, May 17, 2020

Cosmetic Testing with Animals is Cruel Essay - 1302 Words

The Cruelty of Cosmetic Testing on Animals Each year, thousands of animals are brutally tortured in laboratories, in the name of cosmetic research. A movement to ban animal testing for cosmetic purposes has been gaining popularity, with many companies hopping on the bandwagon against this research. New alternatives have been developed to eliminate the necessity to test on animals. This is only a small beginning of what is necessary to end these immoral acts. Animal testing in cosmetics is useless and cruel, and can be accomplished by other methods of research to end the suffering of animals. One of the many painful tests administered on animals in laboratories is the Draize Test. This experiment, introduced forty-five years†¦show more content†¦The Gallup Organization published a poll taken showed that 60% of adults are against animal experimentation (Public, 97). All of these results show both how many animals are killed, and the view of the general population. If this is the reaction regarding these cruel acts, then why does the suffering of animals continue? The testing that occurs in animal laboratories appeals to our emotion because of the cruelty that is involved. This is not the only reason for concern. The current conditions of the treatment and facilities are not acceptable. This is a violation of the Animal Welfare Act of 1996 (97). This law was established to protect animals from inhumane treatment of research animals 97). Inhumane treatment is the torture that occurs everyday, as animals for forced into tests that determine the safety of cosmetic products. A major part of the argument against animal testing revolves around the moral issues of the issue. Should we be allowed to cause suffering to animals to gain something for ourselves (Dufva, 1, 97). The answer to this question is no. These animals are tortured to test the safety of makeup and other cosmetics; these creatures are sacrificed so humans can alter their physical appearance. This act is not only unethical, but violates the basic teachings of Godà ­s word. As quoted in Matthew 7:12, Do untoShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Animal Cruelty1691 Words   |  7 PagesAnimal cruelty has become a problem, it is causing harm to the animals lives. Animal Cruelty is the suffering of an animal, whether it is caused on purpose or not. There are other things that are cruel to animals, such as the testing of animals. These animals have no protection by law, which means they can be used for any testing. This is unacceptable, unfair, and cruel that these animals have to be used in testing. A nimals are just as important as humans. Their are those who believe that it is okayRead MoreAnimal Testing Proposal Essay1549 Words   |  7 PagesMillions of animals are being unneedlessly tested on for cosmetics, even though there are plenty of alternatives available and most of the results are unreliable or not applicable to humans. Although the fight against animal testing has made huge progress recently, America has yet to stop this cruel practice and chooses to torture animals while other countries are making a stop to the testing (â€Å"Animal Testing 101†). Right now, millions of mice, rats, rabbits, primates, cats, dogs, and other animals are lockedRead MoreThe Use Of Research On Cosmetics And Its Effects On Society1604 Words   |  7 PagesBlinded by Beauty On average, 26 million animals are used every year for the use of research on cosmetics. These tests should be banned for many obvious reasons such as it is clearly cruel and inhumane, they cost more than alternative methods, and they do not predict an accurate result due to the anatomical differences. Animals are being unfairly tortured and killed for research on ingredients that people are unknowingly using in their everyday lives. Here’s an important question to consider;Read MoreShould Animal Testing Be Banned?844 Words   |  3 PagesShould animal testing be banned? Nowadays, a lot of animals has been tested on a range of experiments over the world. You could be supporting animal teasing cruelty without knowing it. Have you ever check if there’s animal testing on the cosmetics before you buy it? Today, a lot of cosmetics has been testing on helpless animals and there are about 1.4 million animals die each year from animal testing ( CatalanoJ, 1994). Most of the experiments that are completed in the laboratories are very cruelRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned940 Words   |  4 Pages1). Over 100 million animals are burned, crippled, poisoned, and abused in US labs every year. 2). 92% of experimental drugs that are safe and effective in animals fail in human clinical trials. (DoSomething â€Å"11 Facts About Animal Testing†). There are currently no laws combating the testing of cosmetics on animals, but the practice is harmful and must be ended. As evidenced by the statistics above, millions of animals are tortured and murdered in the United States every year for virtually no reasonRead MoreShould Animals Be Used for Research in the Cosmetic Industry?533 Words   |  3 PagesShould animals be used for research in cosmetic industry? Animal testing is widely used to develop new medicines and to test the safety of other products. These experiments can cause pain to the animals involved or reduce their quality of life in other ways. Animal experimenters are aware of this problem and agree that the testing should be made as humane as possible. While this practice has been followed for years now, some people still strongly believe that it is a cruel act and should be permanentlyRead MoreThe Fight Against Animal Testing1456 Words   |  6 PagesThe Fight Against Animal Testing in Cosmetics The makeup industry has flourished for as long as one can remember. The popularity of beauty bloggers, celebrity makeup lines, etc. have actually led to a record-breaking boost in makeup sales. Cosmetic brands have become more prominent, and makeup stores such as Sephora and Ulta continue to thrive. However, various demands must be met in order to keep up with the growing consumership, and one of the most controversial topics contributing to the successRead MoreShould Animal Testing Be Banned?1665 Words   |  7 PagesTesting Cosmetics on Animals Companies around the world use animals to test cosmetics. Animals, such as rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, rats, and mice, are used to test the effects of chemicals on the eyes and skin. While animal testing is not mandatory, many companies use it. About Cosmetics Animal Testing by the Humane Society International talks about the different options companies have that do not require the cruel use and eventual death of animals. The article also talks about the overallRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Be Banned909 Words   |  4 Pages One major dilemma that companies face today is animal testing. Many cosmetic companies still use animal testing in an immoral ways of testing products. Out of the major 5 companies that are still animal testing for cosmetics stated by one green planet unleash your green monster. Which is a special interest foundation to protect animal-rights. In a recent article by Pam Ryan â€Å"Hate animal cruelty? You should probably avoid these cosmetic brands† states that that Olay was number one on their list (PamRead MoreAnimal Testing Should Not Be Banned1136 Words   |  5 PagesAnimal experimentation is not the most accurate testing, just because some medicine and cosmetic product pass an animal test it doesn’t mean it has a beneficial effect on humans. Animal tests have evolved in many ways throughout history in negative and positive ways. A strong negative being that we are different from animals but not just animals we are also different from each other. There are many arg uments that we humans wouldn’t be where we are today if it wasn’t for reliance on animal testing

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Chorus Of Sophocles Antigone - 2400 Words

Introduction A large part of Greek culture were the religious festivals that occurred once a year. Furthermore, during these festivals the greeks would honor their gods. The Festival of Dionysus honored the god of fertility, revelry and wine (Reinhold 1959). The author of Antigone, Sophocles had participated in one of these festivals and won the award for his performance. He did not become known as one of the greatest playwrights then. Only now is he thought of as one of the greatest playwrights during the greek era. The point of this paper is to show how the chorus in Greek Theater tragedy performances affect the way the play Antigone is performed. Through the use of mask, staging, and speech, Sophocles best distinguishes the chorus. Sophocles most famous playwright is Antigone which was written around 441 b.c. (Reinhold 1959). The odes for the chorus is why this playwright is famous. In order to perform Antigone, a director would need to understand numerous things relating to the chorus: where the chorus adds structure of the play, traditional Greek staging, mask and type of costumes in the play. Antigone and her sister decide to return to Thebes with the intention of helping their brothers (Eteocles and Polyneices) avoid a prophecy which predicts they will kill each other in a battle for the throne of Thebes (Samooh Theater 2014). Unfortunately for the brothers, the prophecy fulfills itself . Antigone returns home to find out that her brothers are dead. HerShow MoreRelated Comparing Todays Media and the Chorus of Sophocles play, Antigone1198 Words   |  5 PagesComparing Todays Media and the Chorus of Sophocles play, Antigone When you think of ancient Greece, what do you think of? Do you think of outrageous myths and impossible art? Do you think ancient Greek culture has absolutely no effect on today? What many people dont realize is that the ancient Greeks have immensely affected the world today. The chorus in Sophocles play, Antigone greatly relates to Daniel McGinns article, Guilt Free TV. Antigone is a girl who wants to obey the godsRead MoreJustification of Creon in Antigone by Sophocles Essay994 Words   |  4 PagesJustification of Creon in Antigone by Sophocles Antigone is a tragic play written by Sophocles in about 441b.c. The play is a continuation of the curse put upon the household of Oedipus Rex. Sophocles actually wrote this play before he wrote Oedipus, but it follows Oedipus in chronological order. The story of Antigone begins after the departure of Oedipus, the king of Thebes, into self-exile. Oedipus’ two sons, Eteocles and Polyneices, were left to rule over Thebes. An argument over rightsRead MoreSophocles Antigone: 441-442bc1285 Words   |  6 PagesThe period that Athens’ Sophocles lived in was a time of important changes to the traditional Greek ways of life. The most significant catalyst of change and concern of the period was democracy. From here stems ideas such as the nature, role and respect of and for the gods, and the individual. The drama of Antigone reflects these concerns in the context it was written through various ways. Athens in the middle of the fifth century BC was at the peak of its power. It attracted foreigners, writersRead MoreThe Women s Rights Movement856 Words   |  4 Pages like Sophocles. Sophocles was a Greek tragedine who practically revolutionized the Greek theater. Using more large new innovations in the theatre, Sophocles added more than two characters into his plays, resulting in more in depth characters and intricate dialogue between the characters. Sophocles wrote 120 plays over the course of his life, but only seven of them exist in their complete form. One example of a play that shines light on Sophocles believes is the drama Antigone. In Antigone, SophoclesRead MoreAntigone : The Foreign Policies Of George Bush s Administration1045 Words   |  5 PagesSeamus Heaney’s adaptation of Sophocles Antigone takes inspiration from the foreign policies of George Bush’s administration, (McElroy. S, 2007 NYT). This is most notably seen through the character Creon and how he dictates to the people. Sophocles version of Antigone was written at a time shortly before Sophocles became one of ten generals that led a military expedition against Samos. I am going to be looking at the scene in which Creon and Haemon argue over Antigone and ultimately part on bad termsRead MoreEssay on Antigone1426 Words   |  6 PagesAs the tragedy concludes, the chorus issues its final words: Pray for no more at all. For what is destined for us, men mortal, there is no escape, demonstrating how justice remains impartial to the prejudice of men; those who make imprudent judgments will ultimately suffer from the consequences of their actions. In Sophocles Antigone, these prejudices notably surface in the form of paternalism as demonstrated through Creons government, highlighting the importance of gender roles throughout theRead MoreAntigone s Actions Cause A Political Change1294 Words   |  6 Pagesmay argue that Antigone’s actions cause a political change in the government, ultimately there is no revolution because the leader never changes. After seeing his wife dead, Creon says, â€Å"I killed her, I can own no alibi: The guilt is wholly mine† (Sophocles 28). This quote shows how guilty Creon feels about the deaths of his family members as he feels that he caused their deaths. Many may say that because of his guilt, Creon will now become a new and improved leader, which is a political change relatingRead MoreSocial, Psychological, And Historical Theories Of SophoclesAntigone1174 Words   |  5 Pagescircumstances. The play Antigone is the last of a tragic trilogy of Sophocles works, the original order was Oedipus Rex, then Oedipus at Colonus and then Antione. Antigone and Ismene are about the last of Oedipus children who wishes to bury her brother Polyneices, but because he was dammed a traitor by Creon, he states that the harshest punishment would be to let the animals and birds eat at their corpse. Antigone and her sister are caught by the Chorus and temporarily imprisoned due to Antigone having no remorseRead MoreThe Endings Of Sophocles Antigone919 Words   |  4 Pagesthey are versions of the same play, the endings of Sophocles Antigone and Anne Carson s Antigonick convey contrasting ideas of the power of fate, and its role in tragedy. In Antigone, fate is described as an inevitable, insurmountable aspect of life that cannot be avoided. On the other hand, Antigonick shows fate to be a malleable product which can be controlled by the decisions individuals take in their lives. Through the role of the chorus, the addition of Nick, and the catharses of the charactersRead MoreAntigone Study Guide Questions Wood722 Words   |  3 Pagesï » ¿Antigone Study Guide Questions Prologue and Scene One 1. What differences do you notice between Antigone and her sister, Ismene? Examine their character. 2. The action of the play begins immediately with a conflict between Antigone and Ismene. What is the cause the cause of the conflict? 2. Why do you think that Ismene will not help her sister with her plan? 3. Do you think Antigone has thought her decision through? Why or why not? 4. Why does Antigone get so angry at her sister? Do you think

The Drug War And Its Effects On The City Of San Francisco

Nonetheless, there are hardly any available studies into the burdensome costs for enforcing these crimes because so few politicians have been courageous enough to challenge the status quo. With that said, the city of San Francisco once organized a non-partisan group comprised of local activists, attorneys, police, and members of the mayor’s office to research this issue. Ultimately, the San Francisco Task Force on Prostitution determined the total budgetary costs (including law enforcement, jails, courts, etc.) of policing prostitution in their city was over $7.6 million for the year of 1994. Obviously, those costs have clearly increased substantially since then. As detailed in The Drug War: A Trillion Dollar Con Game, there is a massive â€Å"prison industrial complex† that profits from an increased prison population. Likewise, money and special interests generally explain the motivations behind several of the flaws in the criminal justice system. With that in mind, politicians usually care more about public perception rather than effective governing. Thus, prostitution stings give the impression of a government that is â€Å"tough on crime.† Prostitution arrests are low hanging fruit for the law enforcement community because it is highly visible and it doesn’t take a brilliant detective to rack up convictions for this crime. At a time when support for the drug war has drastically declined, several media outlets are now reporting how asset forfeiture laws can lead toShow MoreRelatedSocial Justice Reformers And The Progressive Era925 Words   |  4 Pagessame laws, which allowed police to shut down brothels as â€Å"public nuisances† as long as there were complaints from concerned citizens and the judge agreed with their opinion. Consequently, many cities began shutting down their red-light districts, but some notable cities such San Francisco, New Orleans, and San Antonio didn’t enforce the new laws. There were four leading factors that prompted every state to create their own prostitution laws, the first being the Progressive movement. The second factorRead MoreHistory of Drug Laws and Law Enforcement1637 Words   |  7 PagesDrug Laws and Drug Law Enforcement Since the late 19th century, the federal and states governments of the United States have enacted laws and policies to deter the use and distribution of illegal drugs. These laws and policies have not only deemed what drugs are legal and illegal, but have also established penalties for the possession and distribution of these substances and established federal agencies to control drug use and administer drug law enforcement. This essay will not only examineRead MoreCrack: The Decade of American Destruction Essay1692 Words   |  7 PagesIn the 1980s, the United States has witnessed a scar that swept many Americans off their feet. The scar consisted of the effect that crack had on Americans in the 1980s. Many Americans believe that drugs are the main thing that is causing many social problems in society. For instance, in 2004, New York Senator Charles Schumer stated, â€Å"Twenty years ago, crack was headed east across the United States like a Mack truck out of control, and it slamm ed New York hard because we just didnt see the warningRead MoreHippies and the Revolution of a Culture3124 Words   |  13 Pagesgrew partially out of young Americas growing disillusionment with U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. Hippies were mainly white teenagers and young adults who shared a hatred and distrust towards traditional middle-class values and authority. They rejected political and social orthodoxies but embraced aspects of Eastern religions, particularly Buddhism. Many hippies also saw hallucinogenic drugs, such as marijuana and LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), as the key to escaping the ties of societyRead MoreThe Beat Generation Essay1031 Words   |  5 Pagesof the beat movement; however; Jack Kerouac, William Burroughs and Allen Ginsburg were the most famous authors. During the peak of the beat generation, there were many events that affected the world. Fear was a common emotion due to the cold war and the ensuing red scare. The United States and the USSR were involved in a nuclear build up, causing tensions at home to rise. Senator Joe McCarthy began accusing fellow Americans of practicing communism and being Russian spies. His actions onlyRead MoreEssay on Howl by Allen Ginsberg2877 Words   |  12 Pagesand listening to poetry, which came to be known as the San Francisco Poetry Renaissance. The poem that caused the great controversy over obscenity in literature is a four part series of separate works, written mostly at different times that complete a series of ideas, which Judge Clayton Horn considered to have socially redeeming value. In the authors own words, the poem is an affirmation of individual experience of God, sex, drugs, absurdity etc. Part I deals sympathetically with individualRead MoreA Brief Analysis Of the Counterculture Movement of the 1960s2857 Words   |  12 Pages1960s, including both the political movements such as the womens liberation movement, the African-American Civil Rights Movement, the antiwar movement against Vietnam, the environment movement, the gay rights movement, and the cultural movements as drug abuse, hippies, free sex, and rock and roll. Several explicit and dozens of implicit definitions of counterculture have been offered since the term was proposed more than three decades ago. One explicit definition that Westhue gave from the ideologicalRead MoreEssay on The Hippie Culture1846 Words   |  8 Pagesalternative culture, which was their very own (Harris 14). This new subculture was such a radical society that it was given its own name which is still used to this day. They came to be known as the Hippies.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The Hippie movement originated in San Francisco, California and spread across the United States, through Canada, and into parts of Europe (World Book), but the Hippie movement had its greatest influence in America. During the 1960s a radical subculture labeled as Hippies stunned America withRead MoreHippie Culture1887 Words   |  8 Pagesalternative culture, which was their very own (Harris 14). This new subculture was such a radical society that it was given its own name which is still used to this day. They came to be known as, the Hippies. The Hippie movement originated in San Francisco, California and spread across the United States, through Canada, and into parts of Europe (World Book), but the Hippie movement had its greatest influence in America. During the 1960s a radical subculture labeled as Hippies stunned America withRead MoreLegalization of Marijuana1543 Words   |  7 Pagespeople do not believe that the number is zero. Lots of people think that marijuana is harmful and think that it causes people to commit crimes and make bad decisions. The legalization of marijuana would help the government make money by taxing this drug, help sick people with medical use, and lower crime rates. Harry Anslinger, who is the Commissioner of Narcotics in the Bureau of Narcotics, saw that the traffic of marijuana is increasing to such an extent that it would be the greatest national

Free Health and Safety Assignment Free Essays

Introduction Health and safety is of paramount importance. Essentially, this is an issue of growing importance anchored in the ministry of labour. It is important to note that pollution and odor nuisance may be detrimental on the local environment quality. We will write a custom essay sample on Free Health and Safety Assignment or any similar topic only for you Order Now As such management of the working environs becomes a necessary and fundamental aspect. This paper presents an analysis on pollution, health and safety aspects with respect to a case study on food hygiene inspection in derelict town. Main hazards Following the inspection process a number of potential hazards were noted. First, the kitchen floor was stained with large and slippery grease patch which may result in injuries due to unexpected major impact in case of a fall. Second, the unit lacked grills and filters which were responsible for blocking the hydrocarbons that form when fat drips into fire. Their absence may pose mutagenic and carcinogenic effects hence a major hazard (Moeller, 2003). Third, the dumb waiter seemed to be out of order. Finally, behind the bar was a patch of water which remained unclear where it came from. Perhaps, this was responsible for the musty smell emanating from the pub. Legal provisions The employer/business owner is obligated by the law to ensure health and safety on the environment. â€Å"The provision and use of work equipment 1998† provides minimum standards for use, maintenance and protection of equipment (Farmer, 2007). Similarly, â€Å"The provisions on health and safety regulations 1992† sets out measures that prevent repetitive injuries due to slippery floors. Finally, there is a legal provision on nuisance covered under â€Å"Noise at work regulations 1989† that imposes a duty on the premises owner as a result of excessive noise and nuisance (Watson, 2010). Enforcement tools â€Å"The Health and Safety at Work Act 1974† is the primary legislation that governs safety in the work place (Mioshi, Ferrett Hughes, 2009). Similarly, â€Å"The Control of Pollution Act 1974† is another piece of legislation that controls pollution and make provisions with regard to waste disposal, public health and atmospheric pollution. Finally, â€Å"The Environmental Protection Act 1990† acts as an enforcing tool that empowers the local authority with the duty to investigate complaints of various nuisances arising on trade, industrial and business premises that may be prejudicial to health. Preferred approach A certificate of safety should be provided with relevant health and safety legislation on dumb waiter. Grills and filters need to be installed to minimize hazardous effects. Regular cleaning and drying of the floor should be done to prevent bad odor. Finally, a risk assessment needs to be conducted to ascertain whether reasonable steps and abatement measures have been taken. These will ensure compliance with the relevant legislation and enforcing standards on pollution, health and safety. Reference: Mioshi.C, Ferrett.E Hughes.P (2009), Introduction to health and safety at work, Butterworth-Heinemann publishers, 4th edition Watson.P.S. (2010), Safety, health and environmental auditing: a practical guide, CRC Press Moeller.D (2003), Environmental health, Harvard University Press Farmer.A (2007), Handbook of environmental protection and enforcement: principles and practice, Earthscan Publications Ltd How to cite Free Health and Safety Assignment, Essay examples

Unethical According to Utilitarianism free essay sample

Animal Experimentation: Unethical According to Utilitarianism Introduction: One of the most debated ethical issues is Animal Rights. Animals are so much a part of our lives and world that it is impossible to ignore the ethical issues we are faced with pertaining to the treatment of animals. What is difficult about these issues is that although animals have many similar attributes as humans they lack the developed brain function that humans have. Although many animals can feel pain, experience happiness, even form attachment, they are not able to speak for themselves and so humans take charge of their fate. A highly debated topic within the focus of Animal Rights is the morality of Animal Experimentation and under what circumstances, if any, it is morally permitted. In order to address this issue there are two questions that must be answered. The first is, whether or not animals have intrinsic value. The second being, if they are have intrinsic value, in compliance to Utilitarianism is the experimentation producing more harm than good. Assuming that the answer to both questions is yes then aaccording to utilitarianism, because animals have intrinsic value it is unethical to practice animal experimentation. There are thousands of different types of animal testing. Two examples of animal testing are Xenotransplantation and Toxicology testing. Xenotransplantation is used to deal with the shortange of human organs for organ transplantation. It involves transplanting organs from one species to another. Currently many tests are done using primates as the recipients of organs from pigs that have been genetically-modified to reduce the primates immune response against the pig tissue. Toxicology testing, also known as safety testing, is conducted by pharmaceutical companies testing drugs. According to 2005 EU figures, around one million animals are used every year in Europe in toxicology tests; which are about 10% of all procedures. According to Nature, 5,000 animals are used for each chemical being tested, with 12,000 needed to test pesticides. Many times animals are used in psychological experiments. In these experiments animals are put under stressful situations where they are forced to react in a certain way due to an out side stimulus. In many cases the stimulus is an electric shock given to the animal and depending on the goal of the experiment, forces the animal to react in different ways. It is easy to think about animal experimentation in an emotional way. It is never easy to see an animal suffer in pain. Many oraganizations such as PETA use the emotional side to create an argument against using animals for experimentation. While this may be an effective way to tug the heart strings of others, it does not put forward actual ethical theories that prove that animal experimentation is unethical. Therefore by using intrinsic value and utilitarianism one comes to the same conclusion: animal testing is not ethical. Intrinsic Value is often thought to be at the heart of many ethical dilemmas. Many ethical questions generally come down to whether or not an agent has intrinsic value instrumental value. Instrumental value means that something is only valuable because of its use. For example, a pen is only valuable because it enables us to write. To have intrinsic value means to have value because of what the agent is itself, in its own right. The problem that philosophers face is how one determines what has intrinsic value and what does not and then whether or not it also is a moral object. Philosopher Peter Singer â€Å"restricts the bearers of intrinsic value to those with interests, and to have interests, for singer, one must be capable of suffering or experiencing pleasure. † He also has a pathocentric view which states that anything that can feel pain is also a moral agent. Therefore, animals are moral agents. Utilitarianism is the notion that the morality of an action is determined solely by its usefulness in maximizing utility/minimizing negative utility. Utility can be defined as pleasure, preference satisfaction, knowledge and so on. It is thus a form of consequentialism, which means that the consequences of an action are what whether or not it is ethical. Intrinsic value is important when dealing with Utilitarianism because the goal is to maximize pleasure and minimize pain for moral agents. Because Animals are moral objects and therefore are subject to Utilitarianism here are the factors that contribute to the minimization of pain and maximization of pleasure in the following examples. Ethical Arguments: In order to look at animal testing through a utilitarian lens one must be able to compare the pleasure and pain of all agents involved. I believe that the best way to look at a situation objectively is to use apllied ethics and create a value system for each of the agents and their interests. Therefore in case one and two I have created 5 categories that either give pleasure or create pain. Each category is assigned a numeral value and at the end the total is added up and the outcome will either be positive (pleasure) or negative (pain). The Categories are as follows: Pain the animal feels during procedure, pain the animal feels after the experiment, living conditions for the animal prior to or after the experiment, benefits to humans, and alternatives to the experiment. Case 1: The Draize Test is an acute toxicity test first started in 1944 by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) toxicologists John H. Draize and Jacob M. Spines. Initially used for testing cosmetics, the procedure involves applying 0. 5mL or 0. 5g of a test substance to the eye or skin of a restrained, conscious animal, and leaving it for four hours. The animals are observed for up to 14 days, for signs of erythema and edema in the skin test, and redness, swelling, discharge, ulceration, hemorrhaging, cloudiness, or blindness in the tested eye. The test subject is commonly an albino rabbit, though other species are used too, including dogs. The animals are euthanized after testing. Since alternative tests have been validated for corrosivity, meaning acids, bases and other corrosive substances are no longer required to be Draize tested on animals Pain during ProcedurePain after ProcedureLiving conditions of animalsBenefit to HumansAlternative Method -3-5-15-3 Total: -7 The Pain during Procedure category received a -5 because of the pain that the chemicals cause as soon as they enter the eye. The Pain after Procedure received a -5 because of all the symptoms that occur during the 14 day period after the initial injection. The Living Conditions of Animals received a -1 because the animals used the test are immediately euthanized after the test. The Benefit to Humans category received a 5 because the information we get from this experiment is helpful to the wellbeing of humans because we can avoid using certain chemicals in our products. The Alternative method section received a -3 because there are other approved ways of testing for chemicals besides using animals. The total comes to -7 which means that the test is not ethical because it causes more pain than it does pleasure. Case 2: At the University of Harvard they tested the effects of electric shock on the behavior of dogs. Forty dogs were put into a device called a â€Å"shuttlebox† which consists of two compartments which are separated by a barrier at the height of the dogs back. The dogs were then shocked by hundreds of electric shocks through the floor. The dogs then learned to jump over the barrier into the other compartment. The goal of the experiment was to eventually get the dog to anticipate the shock and then eventually put glass between the barrier so that the dog has no escape. At the end of the experiment after twelve days, the dogs no longer tried to jump away from the shock. The dogs merely stood there and absorbed it. Pain during ProcedurePain after ProcedureLiving conditions of animalsBenefit to HumansAlternative Method -5-2023 Total: -2 The Pain during Procedure categorie got a rank of -5 because the entire experiment is based off of the pain that the dogs feel and how they react to it under the circumstances. The Pain after Procedure categorie got a -2 rank because of the observed after pain of the electric shock. Living conditions of animals received a zero because as far as one can tell there was no evidence given pertaining to the living conditions of the dogs. The Benefit to Human category received a 2 because the experiment gave us only elementary knowlegde about what dogs do under these circumstances. It did not give us any medical break through or help us better our living condition. The Alternative Method Category received a 3 because it would be fairly difficult to do this study about the reaction of dogs any other way. The total comes to -2 which means that there is more pain than pleasure and therefore this experiment is not ethical. Case one and two both illustrate how animal experimentation is unethical which is clearly illustrated in the value system. In both cases the positive effects on the humans do not out way the pain and suffering the animals are forced to endure. Differing View Points: Some believe that the utilitarianism pertaining to animal experimentation is invalid because we can not actually prove that animals feel pain. Because animals function at a different brain level than humans we can not tell if what we call â€Å"pain† is really what animals feel. Therefore, the idea of intrinsic value being given to beings that feel pain does not apply to animals because one can not be sure if they actually do feel pain. This argument lacks basic human senses. It is true that one can not truly no what an animal feels when it is electrocuted. But for anyone knows, every other human being could be a fantastically constructed robot. It is impossible to know for sure. But when we see an animal wriggle in pain or yelp at the touch of an electric fence it is only reasonable to conclude that the animal is in pain. Another point of view is that animals only posses instrumental value inspire of whether or not they feel pain. Anthropocentrists believe that only humans have intrinsic value and therefore the utilitarian theory does not apply to animals. Therefore if one adopts this view it would be ethical to use animal experimentation. Anthropocentrists suffer from what Peter Singer calls specieism. Specieism means that because other species are different from humans they must not have enough value to be worth saving. However if this was true then the same would have to apply to humans who are also different from the â€Å"norm†. What separates us from animals is the different level of brain function. But what about humans with different brain function such as the mentally impaired? Would we allow experimentation of someone who suffered brain damage? Do they no longer have intrinsic value? Of course not. The Anthropocentrists merely suffer from a narrow minded view of the world. Conclusion Utilitarianism provides the ethical proof to show how unethical animal experimentation is. Although there are many different ethical theories about animals and their value, Utilitarianism is the only one that takes into account the interests of both animals and humans. Science and technology have exponentially improved that quality of life for humans but it should not be at the expense of our fellow living beings. More and more scientists are finding other ways to experiment other than animals. Hopefully one day we will be able to completely illuminate animal experimentation.